College of Energy, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, China
Lithium storage is one of the most important processes of present and near-future technology. Even though the charge and discharge performance has been investigated in detail for many systems of interest, reliable information where exactly ions and electrons are accommodated is hardly available, not to mention a direct visualization. Even the question whether or not a single- or multi-phase mechanism is met, and—if the latter applies—how the interface looks like, is frequently not satisfactorily answered. Here we show that for the spinel anode Li4Ti5O12 the full static picture can be derived by using the latest spherical aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy as well as atomic-scale electron energy loss spectroscopy and synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction and absorption spectroscopies. The experiments are accompanied by first-principle calculations. We directly visualize the accommodation of the additional Li+ and derive the distribution of electrons introduced by Li-insertion. Moreover, on lithiation, Li4Ti5O12 transforms into Li7Ti5O12 by developing an almost ideal hetero-interface.
 Lu, X.; Zhao, L.; He, X.; Xiao, R.; Gu, L.; Hu, Y. S.; Li, H.; Wang, Z.; Duan, X.; Chen, L.; Maier, J.; Ikuhara, Y., Adv Mater2012, 24, (24), 3233-8.
 Sun, Y.; Zhao, L.; Pan, H.; Lu, X.; Gu, L.; Hu, Y. S.; Li, H.; Armand, M.; Ikuhara, Y.; Chen, L.; Huang, X., Nat Commun2013, 4, 1870.
 Lu, X.;Gu, L.; Hu, Y. S.; Chiu, H. C.; Li, H.; Demopoulos, G. P.; Chen, L., J Am ChemSoc2015, 137, (4), 1581-6.
 Chiu, CH.;,Lu, X.;et al., Adv. Energy Mater., 2016, accepted.
 Lu, X.; Sun, Y.; Jian, Z.; He, X.; Gu, L.; Hu, Y. S.; Li, H.; Wang, Z.; Chen, W.; Duan, X.; Chen, L.; Maier, J.; Tsukimoto, S.; Ikuhara, Y.,. NanoLett2012, 12, (12), 6192-7.
 Lu, X.; Jian, Z.; Fang, Z.; Gu, L.; Hu, Y.-S.; Chen, W.; Wang, Z.; Chen, L.,Energy& Environmental Science2011, 4, (8), 2638.
Professor Xia Lu obtained his Ph.D. degree in Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China in July 2013. After postdoctoral fellow at Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montréal, Canada, he joined College of Energy, Beijing University of Chemical Technology at Sept. 2016. His research mainly focuses on physicochemical properties, especially the ion storage and transport mechanism, of Li/Na rechargeable batteries using both experimental (e.g. aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM)) and computational (first-principle calculations) methods. He has co-authored more than 30 peer-viewed journals, such as J. Am. Chem. Soc., NanoLett., Energy Environ. Sci., Adv. Mater., Adv. Energy Mater., Adv. Funct. Mater., Nature Commun., etc.. Now he has an H-index of 16 with more than 1650 citation times. Any kind of collaboration and scientific discussions are warmly welcome!