报告题目：Prospects for improving indoor solid-fuel burning
报告人：Tami C. Bond (美国伊利诺伊香槟分校)
Three billion people burn solid fuel to cook and heat. Four million people die prematurely because of exposure to particulate matter emissions from this burning every year. These impressive statistics have garnered donor attention, motivated design of combustion devices, and prompted intervention programs large and small.
The simple nature of the “three-stone fire” and the relative poverty of its users initially fooled engineers and implementers into believing a massive transformation was near. Engineering designs have been substantially improved, but actual use of cleaner-burning solid-fuel stoves has taken hold more slowly. Why does a major public health problem still exist, if the solutions are simple? On the technical side, burning a complex fuel without initial distillation is a difficult problem. More importantly, the humble cookstove is embedded in a web of systems: technology support, household interactions, user limitations and ambitions, physical resources, and expectations from the international community. Meeting the challenge of providing clean energy for everyone will require engineers to be both technical experts and systems thinkers.